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Effects Of Wing Elasticity On Tip Vortex: 3D Deformation And 2D3C Flow Field Measurements

Qinfeng Guo, Jinjun Wang

Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China


As aircraft embrace broader applications, the flexible wing presents a promising avenue to enhance aircraft performance across a wide range of flight conditions. Although the aerodynamic benefits of wing deformation are widely recognized, the present understanding of the tip vortex is relatively limited. This work experimentally examines the effects of wing deformation on the tip vortex of a simplified aircraft model with two kinds of elastic wings and a rigid wing. The 3D deformations and 2D3C flow fields are measured using a synchronous measurement system, which includes the high accuracy deformation measurement (HADM) method and the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). It is shown that increased wing elasticity leads to greater bending, with the wing tip moving along the streamwise, vertically upward, and spanwise inward directions. These deformations are closely linked to aerodynamic forces and influence the tip vortex positions. The more elastic wing, EW2, exhibits the highest vortex core position, more than 0.5 times the length of the wing root, while the other one, EW1, shows the strongest vortex in the lift-increased regime. In the early wakes, the tip vortex of the elastic wing is elongated along the spanwise direction, resulting in an asymmetric shape. As it convects downstream, the vortex core disperses via viscous diffusion, resulting in a relatively more circular shape with decreased vorticity.

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