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Turbulence Modulation By Large Heavy Particles In Wall-Bounded Turbulence

Bayode Emmanuel Owolabi, Robert Jäckel, Luca Moriconi, Juliana Braga Rodrigues Loureiro

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil


Most studies on particle laden flows have focused either on small heavy particles or large neutrally buoyant particles. We present, for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), results in the regime of large and heavy particles, investigating the particle-turbulence dynamics over a parameter space covering a wide range of particle-volume fractions, Stokes and Froude numbers.  We consider a flow in a pipe aligned with the gravitational vector, thus allowing for the investigation of the two-way coupling between particles and carrier phase turbulence, while excluding the effect of gravity on the wall-normal migration of particles. Time-resolved images of both tracers (10 micrometers particles) and the dispersed particles (700 micrometers in diameter) were taken in the streamwise-wall-normal pipe plane using a planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) system consisting of a high speed camera (Phantom VEO 440), and an Nd:YLF Laser as light source. Using Voronoi tessellations to analyze the inertial particle dynamics, we show a strong deviation from Poisson behaviour for cases with and without turbophoresis. From the time-resolved PIV measurements, we  also show that the carrier phase turbulence is modulated even at particle concentrations as low as 0.3% indicating that particle-induced stresses due to distortion of fluid streamlines cannot be neglected. An increase or decrease in the peak streamwise velocity fluctuation in the particle laden flow was observed, depending on the Stokes number, while the radial velocity fluctuation was found either to be the same as in the single phase flow case or higher.  Furthermore, pressure drop measurements indicate a linear increase in the skin friction coefficient with volume fraction of particles. This was true for all Stokes and Froude numbers considered. The growth rate (β) of the skin friction coefficient was however observed to be only a function of the Froude number. A power-law fit to the data shows that β scales inversely with the Froude number indicating that for Froude numbers less than 1, the influence of gravity cannot be neglected.

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